Human Development Report 2021-22
The report noted that 90% of countries reported a decline in HDI value in 2020-2021.
United Nations Development Programme released the Human Development Report 2021-22 highlighting the Uncertain Times of the last two years. The Human Development Index has seen a decline in the last two years for the first time. HDI for all countries were increasing since the 1990s. 90% of countries reported a decline in HDI value in 2020 and 2021. The decline is primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine, and dangerous planetary changes.
Human Development Index is measured through three key dimensions – a long and healthy life, access to education, and a decent standard of living. This index helps the countries to monitor their progress and make policy changes if required.
How India performed?
India’s global ranking has fallen down to 132 in 2021 as against 130 in 2020.
|Life Expectancy||70.1 years||67.2 years|
|Expected Years of Schooling||11.9 years||11.9 years|
|Mean Years of Schooling||6.7 years||6.7 years|
|Gross National Income Per Capita||$6107||$6590|
While, the Education parameter for India remain constant, the country dipped into the life expectancy parameter.
UNDP has recommended the three pathways that will lead to sustainable growth and cater to human development. The recommendations fall into two broad categories – Enhancing Social Arrangement and Changing Culture.
Enhancing Social Arrangement
UNDP recommends that the policy should be framed through three following lenses.
To navigate the path of uncertainty, countries need investment in human capital and other resources to prepare for various challenges (environmental, health) in the future.
Example – Investing in public goods
To guarantee protection or compensation in the case of threats like natural disasters, or pandemics, countries need insurance mechanisms to enhance human security.
Example – Devising Social Protection Policies
The world is changing rapidly and hence countries need to invest in science and research to innovate technology that aids to our knowledge.
Example – Technologies leading to energy efficiency or social innovation
With enhancing the social arrangement, UNDP believes that it needs support from society that can be inculcated through cultural changes. Following are the ways in which countries can steadily make that change.
Education is the foundation for social and cultural change. It embodies critical thinking, developing scientific temperament and reasoning in society. This aids in behavioral changes that are needed to navigate the human developmental path.
Example – Developing a school curriculum that talks about diversity.
Activism is successfull when the suggestions from the activist groups turn into law. Therefore, recognition through laws especially for the socio-economic marginalized communities is essential to have inclusive development.
Example – Media campaigns to prevent discrimination
As it is often said, Representation Matters! It caters to the inclusive society and gives powers to the individuals to participate in decision making process in every social and political sphere of the country.
Example – Enhancing representation of Women, and the LGBTQ+ community in the political sphere.
The report suggests pathways to bridge the dip that the countries have experienced in the last two years. Technology can act as an aid but the world needs flexibility, creativity, solidarity, and inclusive development to guide our path to enhancing human development.
Read the full report here!